(51 1) 489 3145   |   (51) 987975959



The Theory of Sampling, as presented in textbooks, is not a palatable product to be used by the industry. Most practitioners in the industry do not have the time to spend on the in-depth subtleties of the Theory of Sampling; they want a straight to the point guideline. The problem is that there are limitless cases on which many books could be written suggesting executives have no idea how expensive bad sampling practices can be.

This sampling congress highlights selected areas in the mining and processing industry where good sampling practices are essential. Unless the Theory of Sampling is presented in a Total Quality Management context, it cannot and will not fulfill its mission; it is an overwhelming fact that I personally observed for more than 40 years.

Many examples from specific industries have been observed and they all involve severe economic losses if the preventive knowledge of the Theory of Sampling is not taken into account by executives and their business administration teams.

Sampling correctness is the substantive core of the Theory of Sampling, therefore, critically important examples should be reviewed during this congress based on the high frequency of their recurrence in their respective domains of application.

An important place should be given to the In Situ Nugget Effect because it has been the child left behind, both by the Theory of Sampling and Geostatistics. The necessary work devoted to the In Situ Nugget Effect is long overdue in order to correct this theoretical and practical deficiency; it has stunning economic consequences if left unaccounted for.

Blasthole sampling in mining open pits is responsible every year for massive money losses all around the world, therefore full devotion to this problem should review the idiosyncrasy of blasthole sampling, and corrective actions should be suggested.

The applications of sampling in process control are almost unlimited, and this should be the domain of choice for sampling manufacturers to offer their solutions at this congress. Most areas involved are dynamic processing streams of many kinds. The effective control of such processes involves a thorough understanding of process, sampling, and measurement variability. Chronostatistics, a pragmatic tool created by the authors of the Theory of Sampling, offers a convenient means to understand such variability in an unambiguous way. The applications of Chronostatistics are vast, from Quality Assurance, Quality Control, process control, sampling requirements optimization, discovery of structural problems, and much more, therefore a large part of this congress should be devoted to this remarkable, simple and pragmatic statistical tool. I always say to my clients that they do not take advantage of the all the data they collect every day.

The optimization of metallurgical processes requires knowledge of the heterogeneity carried by constituents of interest. The common scenario, almost an industry standard, is to rely on the engineering firm who in turn relies on favorite manufacturers of sampling equipment to provide the appropriate sampling systems in the plant to perform accurate metallurgical accounting. This sequence is flawed from the beginning to the end because everything should be based on a careful understanding of the Theory of Sampling by the company project team and their expert who invariably would suggest various approaches and different sampling systems. The necessary progressive and iterative approach should be that the company’s project team (mining or other industries) would do its home work to have a good understanding of the geometallurgy, mineralogy and texture of the ore in each geological unit so consultants and engineers would have the best information to start with. Then a reputable sampling expert would recommend which sampling systems are needed, so the company would require engineering firms to follow pre-established, non-negotiable requirements, and finally select the sampling equipment existing today on the market that is most likely to lead to accurate and precise enough metallurgic accounting. A comprehensive, recommended guideline will be provided during this congress.

Today, the industry is more and more concerned about the estimation of trace amount impurities in many products. Sampling of trace amounts of impurities or rare minerals presents huge theoretical, practical and economic difficulties. Yet, the industry in general is unprepared to deal with these difficulties, as observed in environmental sampling, sampling of genetically modified organisms, sampling of precious metals, sampling of impurities in pharmaceutical products, sampling of impurities in very pure electric copper wires, etc. It is of the utmost importance to devote time and resources to such an important issue.

Finally, ore reserve estimations are an essential part of mineral economics. As a result, a due diligence process is the inevitable part of the risk assessment reached by feasibility studies. Therefore, it is the Theory of Sampling mission to address and offer a logical auditing process in sampling for ore reserves estimations: this congress should suggest a strategy for this important issue.

A mining operation that hires permanent mining, geology and process personnel has all the important tools to create a Geometallurgy program. Many years ago, when computers resided in large buildings with little access to the user, it was impossible to establish a rational conversation between miners, geologists and metallurgists about the behavior of the mineral on a particular day of an operation. The ore was either good, bad or clayey and the results of the operation rarely coincided with these descriptions.

With the arrival of computers, in the early 80s, the mining group quickly realized that they had a tool that could generate "coincidences" with operational parameters between the days of good operation and those with a bad operation. With this event, we could define the beginning of a first stage in the history of Geometallurgy. Adding to this knowledge the improvements in the development of the mining, geological and metallurgical models, quickly diversified the geometalurgical models.

As a discipline, Geometallurgy is quite recent. We all profess to do Geometallurgy and we all think that our methodology is the most appropriate to spread. We should not forget that all deposits are different and with it, the needs of the user. Nor should we forget that the costs associated with geometallurgy, whether in drilling, chemical analysis, mineralogy or modeling processes can be high, which arouses the interest of third parties who offer alternatives to any challenge that Geometallurgy brings with it. Therefore, a congress of this kind is worth for us all to learn what others do and the new developments coming to the market.

Peru is one of the countries that has incorporated Geometallurgy as a practice in its mining operations in recent years and is doing so continuously. Its rise is due to the determination of younger engineers and the breadth of vision of the most experienced.

International Metallurgical Consultants (InterMet) is pleased to organize the first version of the most important congress focused on Geometallurgy in the region.

This event will include the participation of world-class experts, who together with those responsible for Geology, Mines, Concentrator Plants, Research Centers and Suppliers, will discuss fundamental and technological aspects, share experiences of implementation and best practices in the area.

This congress contemplates technical lectures and a number of activities, allowing an effective networking due to the attendance of professionals in mining making decisions in their operations and projects. We welcome you to this great event for February 4 - 5 , 2021.





Principal Geoscientist QAQC

BHP Technical Centre of Excellence and Legacy Assets


Professor Dr.

Department of Mining & Petroleum Engineering

University of São Paulo


Head of the Sampling Weighing Unit and Chemical Analysis

Superintendence of Commerce and Quality



Geologist of the Operational Support Team

Nexa Resources


Manager of the Sampling Area



Manager of Minerals Sampling Product in the Americas



Account Manager



Manager Director


Eng. Helbert Zinanyuca


Geometallurgical Projects Developer

Commissioning Leader Hatch Asociados S.A.

MSc. Eddy Rodriguez

Head of Geometallurgy.

Minera Constancia – Hudbay Peru.

Dr. Jorge Menacho

Gerente General

De Remetallica Ingeniería.

MSc. Eric Ruiz

Metallurgical Superintendent

MMG Minera Las Bambas


Technical Services Manager

Minera Goldfields La Cima S.A.


Theory of sampling.

Sample preparation.

Best practices.

In Situ Nugget effect.

Sampling equipment efficiency and development.

Sampling and Geostatistics.

Sampling in Minerals Processing.

Sampling in open-pit mines.

Sampling in Process Control.

Sampling for exploration and control of grades.


Sampling of trace amounts of impurities.

Environmental sampling.

Precious metals sampling.

Sampling for the estimation of ore reserves.

Quality Control.

Sampling and metallurgical accounting.

Case studies.

Sampling for feasibility studies of projects.

Development of national and international standards.

Future technologies.

Mineral characterization.

On-line characterization.

Advanced mineralogy.

Applied mineralogy.

Science and techniques.

Geometallurgical modeling.


Tests and prediction of the process performance.

Strategies and Planning.


Industrial practice.

Data Reconciliation.


Innovations and new projects.



© Copyright Sampling - Geometallurgy 2021     |     all rights reserved     |     Powered by : InterMet

© Copyright Sampling - Geometallurgy 2021

all rights reserved

Powered by : InterMet